及物动词和不及物动词的区别是什么

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所属分类:高中英语

英语中按动词后可否直接跟宾语,可把动词分成及物动词与不及物动词. 及物动词: 字典里词后标有vt. 的就是及物动词.及物动词后必须跟有动作的对象(即宾语),并且可直接跟宾语. 如see 看见 (vt.) +宾语 I can see a boy.

及物动词和不及物动词的区别是什么

1及物动词和不及物动词有何区别

及物动词与不及物动词的区别从是否需要宾语来分,实义动词分为及物动词和不及物动词两类。

及物动词

后面必须跟宾语意义才完整的实义动词,叫做及物动词(transitive verb)。如:

I believe that the committee will consider our suggestion.我相信委员会将会考虑我们的建议。

“How long can I keep the book ?”Harry asked.哈里问:“这本书我可以借多久?”

不及物动词

本身意义完整,后面不必跟宾语的实义动词,叫做不及物动词(intransitive verb)。如:

Birds can fly. 鸟会飞。

She spoke at the meeting yesterday evening. 她在昨天晚上的会上发了言。

两用动词

英语里有不少实义动词可以兼作及物动词和不及物动词。这样的动词又有两种不同的情况:

a)兼作及物动词和不及物动词时,意义不变。

试比较:

Shall I begin at once? 我可以立刻开始吗?(begin作不及物动词)

She began working as a librarian after she left school. 她毕业后当图书馆管理员。(begin 作及物动词)

When did they leave Chicago? 他们是什么时候离开芝加哥的?(leave 作及物动词)

My watch stopped. 我的表停了。

They left last week. 他们是上周离开的。(left 作不及物动词)

b)兼作及物动词和不及物动词时,有时意义不尽相同。

如:

Wash your hands before meals.饭前要洗手。

Does this cloth wash well? 这布经得起洗吗?

1及物动词与不及物动词的差异

英语中按动词后可否直接跟宾语,可把动词分成及物动词与不及物动词.

及物动词: 字典里词后标有vt. 的就是及物动词.及物动词后必须跟有动作的对象(即宾语),并且可直接跟宾语.

如see 看见 (vt.) +宾语 I can see a boy.

其实所谓“及物”,就是后面可直接加宾语的动词,有被动形式,而不及物动词是没有被动式的,也不可直接加宾语,需加上介词.

及物动词后面可直接接宾语,不及物动词后面不可直接接宾语,一般要加介词后再接宾语.实际上很多动词既是及物动词,又是不及物动词.我举一个例子,就说write.如I am writing.和I am writing a letter.在前一个句子write是不及物动词,在后一个句子write是及物动词.又如,see是及物动词,但在特殊情况下如seeing is believing.

不及物动词就是一个动作不能施加到另一个物体上,也就是后面不能加宾语.

例如:He is running. run这个动词就是不及物动词,后面不能加sth.(不能说跑什么东西)

分清及物不及物动词:

分清动词的及物不及物是在英语学习中必须解决的首要问题.动词及物与不及物通常有以下几种情况:

a.主要用作及物动词.及物动词后面必须跟宾语.可以用于:"主+谓+宾";"主+谓+双宾";"主+谓+宾+宾补"结构.如:

He reached Paris the day before yesterday.

Please hand me the book over there.

They asked me to go fishing with them.

类似的还有:buy, catch, invent, found, like, observe, offer, prevent, promise, raise, find, forget, receive, regard, see, say, seat, supply, select, suppose, show, make, take, tell.

b.主要用作不及物的动词.不及物动词后面不跟宾语.只能用与:"主+谓"结构.

This is the room where I once lived.

类似的还有:agree, go, work, listen, look, come, die, belong, fall, exist, rise, arrive, sit, sail, hurry, fail, succeed.

c.既可以用作及物又可以用作不及物的动词,其意义不变.如begin 都是作"开始"讲.everybody , our game begins. let us begin our game. 类似的还有:start, answer, sing, close, consider, insist, read, learn, prepare, pay, hurt, improve.

d.既可以用作及物又可以用作不及物的动词,其意义完全不同.

这类动词作不及物动词是一个意义;而作及物动词时却是另一个意义.如lift作不及物动词时是指烟雾的"消散".we saw the mountain when the clouds lifted. 作及物动词时是"升高;举起".

He lifted his glass and drank.

类似的还有:beat vi.跳动 vt. 敲、打; grow vi.生长 vt. 种植

play vi.玩耍 vt. 打(牌、球),演奏 smell vi.发出(气味) vt. 嗅

ring vi.(电话、铃)响vt.打电话 speak vi.讲话 vt. 说(语言)

hang vi. 悬挂 vt. 绞死 operate vi.动手术 vt. 操作

在英语错误中,“及物动词+介词+宾语”(transitive verb+preposition+object),是常见的一种.所谓及物动词,就是谓语动词(predicative verb),不必通过介词引荐宾语.相反的,不及物动词(intransitive verb)是不带宾语的.有许多动词,虽然性质是及物的,但不一定要有宾语,如下列的①a和②a便是这种情形:

①a. We study every day.

b. Do you study English every day.

②a. Please write clearly next time.

b. Can you write your composition now?

如果本质上就是不及物动词,就不会有宾语;若要宾语,就要借介词之助,一起连用才行(不及物动词+宾语+介词),如③b和④b;③a和④a是错的;

*③a. The children are listening the music.

b. The children are listening to the music.

*④a. She is laughing the crippled man.

b. She is laughing at the crippled man.

反之,及物动词不必靠介词,就可以带宾语,如上述的①b和②b ,又如⑤和 ⑥:

⑤ John is giving a book to me.

⑥ Who will answer this question?

如果无意中把介词加上,就错了,如:

*⑦ Who will answer to this question?

下列这句从房地产广告中看到的句子,也犯了同样的错:

“We have many buyers awaiting for available units here.”

“Awaiting”是个及物动词,后面的介词“for”是多余的,要去掉;不然把“awaiting”改为“waiting for”也行.

许多人习惯上喜欢把介词加到及物动词后面,然后才带出宾语.最常见的是“emphasize/stress on/upon”和“discuss about”,如:

⑧ Singaporeans seem to have emphasized on material gains.

⑨ In our education system, we stress upon examination results.

⑩ World leaders spent a lot of time discussing about worsening economic problems.

显然的,这三句里的介词“on/upon”和“about”是多余的,不必要的.





   

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